Stimuli-Responsive Materials in Additive Manufacturing

Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are expanding the boundaries of materials science and providing an exciting forum for interdisciplinary research. The ability to fabricate arbitrarily complex objects has made AM technologies indispensable in personalized healthcare, soft electronics, and renewable energy. At the intersection of AM technologies and materials chemistry are stimuli-responsive polymers, which change their chemical and physical properties in response to specific environmental cues. The responsiveness of these “smart” polymers makes them suitable for AM and provides functionality to the additively manufactured objects. Furthermore, the type and degree of stimulus response of smart polymers can be regulated through precise synthetic design or via incorporation of additives. Herein, we review recently reported stimuli-responsive polymers used in AM, with a focus on the design and chemistry of the polymers. The materials are broadly classified by type of printing, and more specifically classified by type of stimulus response. Finally, we briefly consider existing challenges that stimuli-responsive materials in AM can address in the future.

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